The Ugandan government has signed a memorandum of understanding with the China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC) to cooperate in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. The MOU is in support of Uganda’s plans to produce 2000MWe of power from nuclear plants within 10-15 years.  

Uganda’s Minister of Energy and Mineral Development, Irene Muloni emphasised that a nuclear power development is part of Uganda’s long-term energy development plan. She said CNNC's capabilities in the nuclear and non-nuclear sectors were in line with Uganda's industrial development needs and that Uganda was willing to conduct in-depth cooperation with CNNC. Co-operation between CNNC and Uganda will involve the development of nuclear power infrastructure including the design, construction and operation of nuclear power plants.

The text of a draft MOU was agreed upon during a May 2017 visit to Beijing of a delegation from Uganda led by Prisca Boonabantu, undersecretary in the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Development. It followed a tour of Chinese officials to Kampala in March 2016.

In June 2017, Uganda's Ministry of Energy and Mineral Development also signed an MOU on nuclear energy cooperation with Russian state nuclear corporation Rosatom.

Uganda's Atomic Energy Bill came into effect in 2008. In October 2008, Uganda signed up to the IAEA's Country Programme Framework, which provides a frame of reference for planning medium-term technical cooperation between an IAEA member state and the Agency, and identifies priority areas where the transfer of nuclear technology and technical cooperation resources will be directed to support national development goals.

Uganda has 30 uranium targets including ten that have been prioritised for development. President Yoweri Museveni is opposed to exporting unprocessed uranium, insisting on exploiting it to for domestic energy use.