The 2024 UN Climate Change Conference (UNFCCC COP29) will convene in November 2024 in Baku, Azerbaijan. The event will be led by Azerbaijan Ecology Minister Mukhtar Babayev.

In March, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) COP28 Presidency, the Azerbaijani COP29 Presidency, and the Brazilian COP30 Presidency sent out a letter to parties, in which the three Presidencies (Troika) outlines a Roadmap to Mission 1.5°C to “significantly enhance international cooperation and the international enabling environment to stimulate ambition in the next round of nationally determined contributions (NDCs), with a view to enhancing action and implementation over this critical decade and keeping 1.5°C within reach”. NDCs embody efforts and commitments by each country to reduce national emissions and adapt to the impacts of climate change.

The letter was signed by COP28 President and UAE Special Envoy for Climate Change Sultan Al Jaber, COP29 Incoming President and Minister of Ecology & Natural Resources of Azerbaijan Mukhtar Babayev, and COP30 President Brazil’s Minister of the Environment & Climate Change Marina Silva. It notes the Troika’s intention to formally call on the UN Secretary-General to create “a single coordinated, unified, and effective platform of UN support across agencies”. The Troika will also host a series of high-level political convenings to assess barriers to NDC development.

COP28 agreed that the parties recognise that limiting global warming to 1.5°C "with no or limited overshoot requires deep, rapid and sustained reductions in global greenhouse gas emissions of 43% by 2030 and 60% by 2035 relative to the 2019 level and reaching net-zero carbon dioxide emissions by 2050". This UAE Consensus called on parties to "contribute to global efforts, in a nationally determined manner, taking into account the Paris Agreement and their different national circumstances, pathways and approaches".

It called for transition away from fossil fuels in energy systems, "in a just, orderly and equitable manner, accelerating action in this critical decade, so as to achieve net-zero by 2050 in keeping with the science". It said there should be an acceleration in zero and low-emission technologies, "including, inter alia, renewables, nuclear, abatement and removal technologies such as carbon capture and utilisation and storage, particularly in hard-to-abate sectors, and low-carbon hydrogen production".

The Troika said in its letter that it will:

  • Support parties’ nationally determined ambition and priorities through the implementation of the UAE Consensus;
  • Catalyse the mobilisation and provision of technical and financial resources to further stimulate ambition in NDCs; and
  • Utilise existing mechanisms, processes, and stakeholders, within and outside the UN system, to channel means of implementation in support of greater ambition that contributes to sustainable development.

The letter articulates the COP Presidencies Troika’s belief that “ambition and implementation can come from all parts of the world” and calls for the early submission of high-ambition NDCs. “As three developing countries representing different geographic regions,” the COP28, COP29, and COP30 Presidencies announce they will demonstrate their commitment by submitting 1.5°C-aligned NDCs by early 2025.

“We are now squarely in the race to the next round of NDCs, and the timeline for submission is short.” The letter said. “As such, the COP Presidencies Troika will continue to advocate strongly for early submissions of high ambition NDCs that decisively take forward the UAE Consensus. High ambition NDCs should include ambition in finance, technology and capacity-building resources to developing countries, in the case of NDCs from developed country-parties. In this context, it is our shared belief that ambition and implementation can come from all parts of the world. As three developing countries representing different geographic regions of our world, the COP28, COP29, and COP30 Presidencies will demonstrate our commitment by submitting 1.5°C-aligned NDCs, guided by the UAE Consensus.”

Annexed to the letter is the Roadmap to Mission 1.5°C, which outlines its vision, mandate and objectives, and scope of work. It says the next round of NDCs in 2025 must be “backed by accessible, affordable, transparent and inclusive climate finance and other means of implementation and provision of support so to ensure that the world can truly redefine collective ambition and accelerate implementation”.

It adds: “To accelerate implementation at scale, the approach of the Troika will: address all pillars of the Paris Agreement; aim to enable 1.5°C-aligned NDCs, informed by the UAE Consensus, by early 2025 that can be used by countries as investment plans; leverage existing political and sectorial platforms while harnessing the full support and knowledge available across the UN System.”

Image: Azerbaijan's Ecology Minister Mukhtar Babayev has been appointed COP29 president