Japan's parliament on 7 June approved a civilian nuclear cooperation treaty with India, despite opposition concerns that technology exported to a non-signatory of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty could be used in military applications, Kyodo news agency reported.

The government will now revise relevant rules under the Nuclear Regulation, and India will take similar steps before the parties exchange documents. The treaty could come into effect in July.

India conducted nuclear tests in 1974 and 1998 without joining the NPT regime, which is designed to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons. The treaty limits the cooperation to civilian purposes by forbidding India from using the technology and equipment to develop atomic weapons and requiring inspections by the International Atomic Energy Agency.

India is allowed to reprocess nuclear materials, but cannot make highly enriched uranium (HEU), except with Japan's agreement.

The parties confirmed in an annexe to the treaty that Japan will halt the deal if India breaks its 2008 promise to maintain a moratorium on nuclear testing.

The governments of Japan and India began negotiating the cooperation agreement in 2010. It was signed in November 2016 during Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi's visit to Japan.