Table 2: Development of VVER-1000 nuclear fuel

1 January 2000

Before 1997 1998-2010 Since 1998 Since 2003 Since 2006 Since 2006 Since 2010
Fuel assembly type TVS, TVS-M UTVS TVSA TVS-2 TVSA-ALFA, TVSA-12 TVS-2M TVSA-PLUS
Absorber type DBA U-Gd U-Gd U-Gd U-Gd U-Gd U-Gd
Average enrichment of reload batch (% U-235) 4.31 3.77 ~4.26 ~4.26 Up to 4.95 Up to 4.95 Up to 4.95
Number of FA in reload batch (pcs) 54 48 42 54 36 60 60
Fuel burnup (MWday/kgU) 49 49 55 55 Up to 68 Up to 68 Up to 68
Fuel cycle length (EFPD) 3-year 3-year 4x(310-320) 3x(350-370) 5x(310-320) 3x(480-510) 3x(480-510)
Uranium consumption, (kgU/MWday) 0.240 0.205 0.199 0.210 0.187 0.230 0.230



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