Table 1: Development of VVER-440 nuclear fuel

1 January 2000

*Uranium-gadolinium fuel **At 0.3% tails assay
before 1997 1998-2002 2003-2010 2010…
Fuel assembly (FA) type Conventional FA with shroud tube Conventional FA with shroud tube 2nd generation FA with shroud tube 2nd or 3rd generation FA
Type of fuel rod bundle Not embossed Embossed Embossed U-Gd* fuel Embossed U-Gd* fuel
Average enrichment
of reload batch (% U-235) 3.60 3.82 4.25/4.38 4.87
Number of FA in reload batch 105 84 66 60
Fuel burnup (MWday/kgU) 36 45 57 65
Fuel cycle length 3-year 4-year 5-year 6-year
Uranium consumption (kgU/MWday)** 0.256 0.209 0.184 0.180



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