Full-scale construction has started at Russia's Kursk NPP Phase Two (Kursk II), according to the Kursk II Construction Directorate. Earlier in June, regulator Rostechnadzor granted a construction licence for Unit 1 of Kursk II and a construction permit from state nuclear corporation Rosatom followed. Kursk II will use the new VVER-TOI reactors and will be a reference for future construction using this technology both in Russia and abroad. In 2016, investment in the Kursk II project will total RUB10bn ($152m). In 2015 RUB2.8bn was spent on pre-construction work. The Director of the Kursk II Construction Directorate, Nikolay Mitrofanov, said total investment in Kursk II will be "more than RUB200bn, a substantial part of which will be spent for equipment manufacture. The VVER-TOI reactor vessel and steam generators will be manufactured at Atommash works in Volgodonsk; Power Machines will supply the turbine set; and the core melt trap will be made by Energotex (Kurchatov, Kursk Region). Kursk II will replace four ageing RBMK reactors at the present Kursk NPP. It will have two VVER-TOI units with commercial operation planned for 2020 and 2021. The VVER-TOI reactor is a Generation III+ design, developed from the 1,200MWe AES-2006 pressurised water reactor.